Monday, 25 February 2008

Associates of the BSA: Ambrose Poynter

Ambrose Poynter (1867-1923) was in the second batch of Associates to be appointed. Poynter was the son of Sir Edward John Poynter (1836-1919) - who chaired the Annual Meeting of Subscribers in July 1897 - and his wife Agnes (Macdonald) (1843-1906); his grandfather was the architect Ambrose Poynter (1796-1886). The wider family included his cousins Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) and the prime minister Stanley Baldwin (1867-1947), and his uncle the painter Sir Edward Burne-Jones (1833-98)

The younger Ambrose Poynter had been educated at Eton, and the Royal Academy School where he articled to George Aitchison (1825-1910), professor of architecture (1887-1905). Poynter became an architect in 1893. In the spring of 1897 he travelled to Greece to work on Roman period pavements in the Theatre of Dionysos and the Odeion of Herodes Atticus at Athens, and the Temple of Zeus at Olympia.

Poynter, A. M. 1896/7. "Remarks on three sectile pavements in Greece." Annual of the British School at Athens 3: 175-81.

Theatre of Dionysos, Athens. © David Gill.

Herodes Britannicus: Funding Excavations in Laconia

The BSA struggled to raise money for its work. The £500 grant from the British government in effect covered the director's stipend. Special funds were created for specific projects, notably the Laconian Exploration Fund. George Macmillan, as chairman of the Managing Committee, had made an appeal in February 1906 for a sum 'not than £700 or £800'.

At the Annual Meeting of Subscribers on October 27, 1908. Lord Cromer, the president, commented:
Lastly, let me say something of the financial outlook. You may remember that, at a period before the Government had decided to make a grant of £500, for which we are all very grateful, Lord Sherborne advised those who were interested in the Institution to fall back on the generosity of some British Herodes Atticus. Well, gentlemen, during the course of last year a most welcome Herodes Britannicus vel Americanus appeared in the person of Mr. Astor, who gave the munificent and wholly unsolicited gift of £1,000 for the Spartan excavations. (Cheers)
William Waldorf Astor (1848-1919) was owner of Hever Castle in Kent (and former owner of Clivedon House in Buckinghamshire). He had become a British subject in 1899.

The Eurotas valley from Mistra. © David Gill.

The London Secretary (1886-1920)

The first Honorary Secretary of the BSA was George Augustin Macmillan (1855-1936) who served for ten years (1886-97). He held this alongside the same position for the Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies. (He subsequently became a Trustee in 1900).

Macmillan was replaced by William Loring (1865-1915), a former student of the School (Cambridge Studentship, Craven Studentship), a member of the Managing Committee, a former Fellow of King's College, Cambridge (1891-97), and Examiner for the Board of Education (1894-1903). During his leave of absence serving in the Boer War (1899-1901; corporal, 19th [Lothians and Berwickshire] Company, Imperial Yeomanry, 1900-1 (D.C.M.); Lieutenant in the Scottish Horse, 1901-2), Macmillan deputised for him. Loring was also the Honorary Secretary for the British School at Rome. He served as Secretary for the BSA until 1903 when he was appointed Director of Education under the West Riding County Council (1903-5).

Loring's place was taken by John ff. Baker Penoyre (1870-1954) who had been a student at Keble College, Oxford, an assistant master at Chigwell School (1896-1900), and had then been admitted to the BSA in 1900/01; he also acted as an extension lecturer on classical art and archaeology at Oxford University. The position of Secretary also attracted a salary of £40 per year. Like Loring he acted as Secretary to the British School at Rome (1904-12). In 1904 he was appointed Secretary for the Hellenic Society at £80 per year (where he also served as Librarian at £60 per year). In 1906/07, 1907/08 Penoyre was granted a year's leave of absence for 'travel and research', and was re-admitted to the BSA. He was replaced by Katherine Raleigh (the translator of The Gods of Olympus [1892]).

From 1911 (to 1920) Caroline Amy Hutton, another former student (1896/97), served as acting Honorary Secretary. She had been serving as joint editor of the Annual from 1906.

Thursday, 21 February 2008

BSA Income (1894-1918)

Cecil Harcourt-Smith helped to transform the finances of the BSA through the introduction of the annual Government Grant (£500) and the growth of subscriptions. Investments also formed a steady stream of income (and increased during the First World War). Money given specifically for excavations changed from year to year.

Chart revised 7 August 2008.

Tuesday, 19 February 2008

Assistant Directors (1895-1915)

The first assistant director was appointed in 1895/96 to assist Cecil Harcourt-Smith who was on a six-month secondment from the British Museum. The post was held by the John George Smith (b. 1869) who had been admitted to the School in 1891/92, while still an undergraduate at Magdalen College, Oxford, under Ernest Gardner. One of Smith's roles was to assist with the Library; he also accompanied Harcourt-Smith to look for sites on Melos.

The next assistant was George Chatterton Richards (1867-1951) who had been admitted to the BSA under Ernest Gardner and had assisted with the excavations at Megalopolis. He had studied at Balliol College, and while in Greece had held a fellowship at Hertford College. In 1891 he was appointed professor of Greek at the University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire (1891-98). It was in this period that he was assistant to David G. Hogarth for a period of four months for the 1897/98 session to deliver 'lectures in the museums to students and (at Easter time) to visitors'. He also prepared the report on 'Archaeology in Greece'.

Hogarth's second assistant director was Robert Carr Bosanquet (1871-1935) for the year 1899/1900 (for which he received a stipend of £350). Like Richards, Bosanquet prepared the report on 'Archaeology in Greece'. With Hogarth excavating on Crete, Bosanquet took administrative control in Athens which prepared him for becoming the successor to Hogarth.

Marcus N. Tod (1878-1974) was Bosanquet's assistant for two sessions (1903/04, 1904/05), alongside a fellowship at Oriel College, Oxford; he had previously been Senior Student at the BSA. As Senior Student he had assisted with the reorganisation of the Library (1902/03), and one of his roles as assistant director was supervision of the library and hostel.

Henry Julius Wetenhall Tillyard (1881-1968) served as temporary librarian during 1904/05 as the Penrose Memorial Library opened. (Tod had returned to his fellowship in Oxford in early March 1905.) Tillyard had been working on boundary stones in Attica and had taken an active part in the Laconia project.

Frederick W. Hasluck (1878-1920) was appointed librarian for the BSA in 1905/06 (alongside a fellowship at King's College, Cambridge). Hasluck had earlier been admitted as student in 1901/02. He was then appointed assistant director and librarian from 1906/07 until 1915 (with a stipend of £150). For one year, 1910/11, he was on leave of absence and was replaced by Arthur M. Woodward (1883-1973). During Richard M. Dawkins' leave of absence (1911/12) Hasluck was acting director.

Monday, 18 February 2008

Cambridge: Chancellor's Classical Medals

BSA students who were awarded the Chancellor's Classical Medals.
  • 1886: Montague Rhodes James.
  • 1889: William Loring. (Equal with Edwin J. Brooks)

Cambridge: Sir William Browne's Medals

BSA students who won the Sir William Browne Medals.
  • 1877, Greek Epigram: Hercules Henry West
  • 1889, Latin Ode: Edward Ernest Sikes
  • 1901, Latin Epigram: Frederick William Hasluck

Cambridge, Classical Tripos, Part 2: Subject Choice

The results for Part 2 of the Classical Tripos indicate an emphasis on Classical Archaeology.

From 1881 the section areas where a first class mark was obtained was indicated.
  • 1884: Gardner, Ernest Arthur. Caius. Pt 2, 1st (a, d [dist.]).
  • 1885: James, Montague Rhodes. King's. Pt 2, 1st (a [dist.], d [dist.]).
  • 1889: Loring, William. King's. Pt 2, 1st (a, b [dist.], d).
  • 1890: Sikes, Edward Ernest. St John's. Pt 2, 1st (a, d).
  • 1891: Baker, Francis Brayne (Brayne-Baker). Christ's. Pt 2, 2nd.
  • 1891: Bather, Arthur George. King's. Pt 2, 1st (d [dist.]).
  • 1891: Benson, Edward Frederic. King's. Pt 2, 1st (d).
  • 1892: Mayor, Robert John Grote. King's. Pt 2, 1st. (a [dist.], b, c [dist.])
  • 1892: Yorke, Vincent Wodehouse. King's. Pt 2, 1st. (d)
  • 1894: Earp, Frank (Francis) Russell. King's. Pt 2, 1st. (d)
  • 1894: Bosanquet, Robert Carr. Trinity. Pt 2, 1st. (d)
1895 onwards
From 1895, the subject area is indicated in which a first was obtained.

Group A: Literature and Criticism
  • 1897: Lawson, John Cuthbert. Pembroke. Pt 2, 1st.
Group C: History
  • 1898: Edmonds, Charles Douglas. Emmanuel. Pt 2, 1st.
  • 1904: Tillyard, Henry Julius Wetenhall. Caius. Pt 2, 1st.
  • 1910: Tillard, Lawrence Berkley. St John's. Pt 2, 1st.
Group D: Archaeology
  • 1896: Morrison, Frederick Arthur Charles. Jesus. Pt 2, 1st. Dist.
  • 1898: Gutch, Clement. King's. Pt 2, 1st.
  • 1899: Smith, Solomon Charles Kaines. Magdalene. Pt 2, 1st.
  • 1900: Marshall, John Hubert. King's, Pt 2, 1st.
  • 1901: Hasluck, Frederick William. King's. Pt 2, 1st. Dist.
  • 1902: Wace, Alan John Bayard. Pembroke. Pt 2, 1st. Dist.
  • 1903: Welsh, Margery Katharine. Newnham. Pt 2, 1st.
  • 1905: Farrell, Wilfrid Jerome. Jesus. Pt 2, 1st.
  • 1905: Droop, John Percival. Trinity. Pt 2, 1st.
  • 1908: Gomme, Arnold Wycombe. Trinity. Pt 2, 1st. Dist.
  • 1909: Grose, Sidney Wilson. Christ's. Pt 2, 1st.
  • 1909: Radford, Evelyn. Newnham. Pt 2, 1st.
  • 1910: Lamb, Dorothy. Newnham. Pt 2, 1st.
Group E: Language
  • 1902: Dawkins, Richard Mcgillivray. Emmanuel. Pt 2, 1st. Dist.
2nd Class
  • 1899: Kohler, O.C. Girton. Pt 2, 2nd.
  • 1903: Stokes, John Laurence. Pembroke. Pt 2, 2nd
Not Available
  • 1911: Tillyard, Eustace Mandeville Wetenhall. Jesus. Pt 2, 1st.
  • 1912: Scutt, Cecil Allison. Clare. Pt 2, 1st.
  • 1912: Laistner, Max Ludwig Wolfram. Jesus. Pt 2, 1st.

Classical Archaeology at Cambridge

Some of the influences on Cambridge students at the BSA in the period up to the First World War included the following individuals.

Disney Professor of Archaeology
Founded in 1851 by Dr John Disney. The holder was required to deliver six lectures 'on the subject of Classical Mediaeval and other Antiquities the Fine Arts and all matters and things connected therewith'.
Slade Professor of Fine Art
Founded by Felix Slade (1788-1868), 1869.
Professor of Ancient History
Established 1898.
Reader in Classical Archaeology
Established 1883; stipend £300.
Reader in Classics (Brereton)
Established 1906.

University Lectureship in Classics (Epigraphy and Dialects)
Established 1883; stipend £50.
  • 1883: Ernest Stewart Roberts (1847-1912). Fellow of Caius; Master of Caius.
  • 1906: Sidney George Campbell. Fellow of Christ's.
University Lectureship in Classics (Ancient History)
Established 1883; originally in Roman History, stipend £50; 1899, in Ancient History; 1906, Stipend £200.
  • 1883: James Smith Reid (1846-1926). Fellow of Caius. Professor of Ancient History, 1899.
  • 1887: Arthur Augustus Tilley. Fellow of King's.
  • 1899: Leonard Whibley. Fellow of Pembroke.
University Lectureship in Ancient History
Established 1901 (until 1912).
  • 1901: Nathaniel Wedd. Fellow of King's.

Honorary Students (1895-1915)

In addition to 'Associates of the School',
XXIII. The Managing Committee may elect as Honorary Students of the School such persons as they may from time to time deem worthy of that distinction, and may also elect as Associates of the School any persons actively engaged in study or exploration in Greek lands. (1907/08)
Honorary Students included a number of former Associates:
  • 1895/96: Professor John Bagnell Bury (1861-1927). Trinity College, Dublin.
  • 1895/96: (Sir) Arthur J. Evans (1851-1941). Keeper, The Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.
  • 1896/97: J.Linton Myres. Student of Christ Church, Oxford. Former student.
  • 1897/98: Professor Ernest A. Gardner. Former Director.
In addition:
  • 1904: Professor Alexander van Millingen (1840-1915). Professor of History at Robert College, Constantinople.
  • 1906: William Henry Forbes (1851-1914). Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford.
  • 1908: Professor William John Woodhouse (1866-1937). University of Sydney. Former student.
  • 1912: Alan J.B. Wace (1879-1957). Former Assistant Director; later Director.
  • 1914: Professor (Sir) John D. Beazley (1885-1970).
  • 1914: Edward Norman Gardiner (1864-1930). Corpus Christi College, Oxford
  • 1914. Richard M. Dawkins (1871-1955). Former Director.
  • 1915: Frederick W. Hasluck (1878-1920). Former Assistant Director.

Associates of the School (1896-1913)

Associates were first elected in 1896.
XXII. The Managing Committee may elect as Associates of the School any persons actively engaged in study or exploration in Greek lands; and may also elect as honorary members such persons as they may from time to time think desirable. (1899/1900)
Associates include:
  • 1895/96: Rev. Alfred Hamilton Cruikshank (1862-1927). Assistant Master at Winchester (1894-1910); Durham.
  • 1895/96: Professor John Bagnell Bury (1861-1927). Trinity College, Dublin.
  • 1895/96: (Sir) Arthur J. Evans (1851-1941). Keeper, The Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.
  • 1896/97: Ambrose Poynter (1867-1923). Eton. Royal Academy.
  • 1896/97: John Ellingham Brooks (1863-1929). Peterhouse, Cambridge. Former student.
  • 1896/97: John Linton Myres (1869-1954). Student of Christ Church, Oxford. Former student.
  • 1897/98: Professor Ernest A. Gardner (1862-1939). University College London. Former Director.
  • 1902: Louisa Pesel (c. 1870-1947). Directrice of the Royal Hellenic School of Needlwork and Laces at Athens.
  • 1902: John Foster Crace (d. 1960). Classical master at Eton (1901-35).
  • 1903: Mona Wilson (1872-1954). Newnham College, Cambridge (1892-96).
  • 1903: J.S. Carter
  • 1903: B. Townsend
  • 1903: (Sir) Augustus Moore Daniel (1866-1950). Trinity College, Cambridge. Assistant Director of the British School at Rome; Director of the National Gallery.
  • 1906: H.W. Allen
  • 1906: William Miller (1864-1945). Hertford College, Oxford. Journalist and historian.
  • 1906: George Kennedy
  • 1910: (Sir) Alfred Eckhard Zimmern (1879-1957). Winchester; New College, Oxford. Fellow and tutor of New College (1904-09); Inspector, Board of Education (1912-15).
  • 1912: Mary B. Negreponte
  • 1913: C.J. Ellingham. St John's College, Oxford.
  • 1913: Capt. H.M. Greaves, R.A. Keble College, Oxford.

Friday, 15 February 2008

Mature Students at the BSA: Hercules Henry West

Hercules Henry West (1856-1937) was admitted to the BSA in 1896/97 during the directorship of Cecil Harcourt-Smith. He was the youngest son of the Very Rev. John West, Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. West was educated at Marlborough (1871-75) and Trinity College, Cambridge (1875-79; 7th Classic). He was awarded the Sir William Browne’s Medal for Greek Epigram (1877). (One of West's new contemporaries at Marlborough and Trinity was R.A.H. Bickford-Smith [1859-1916] who was admitted to the BSA in 1889/90.)

Henry Jackson, at the time praelector in ancient philosophy at Trinity, used to invite people to his rooms to hear "Herky" exercise his "conspicuous talent for comic mimicry" (The Times June 12, 1937). One of his best interpretations was of 'the man with the testudo'.

West's sister, Elizabeth, was married to Professor Edward Dowden who held the chair of English literature at Trinity College, Dublin. Another, Caroline, was married to the Rev. Canon the Hon. Edward Lyttleton (1855-1942), Master of Haileybury (1890-1905) and Headmaster of Eton (1905-16). Lyttleton was in the year above West at Trinity.

Thursday, 14 February 2008

Love at the BSA

Today is Valentine's day .... so here are some of the romances at the BSA (and BSR) before the First World War.
  • Margery Katharine Daniel (1880-1960; Newnham College; BSA 1903/04) married Augustus Moore Daniel (1866-1950; associate student of the BSA; assistant director of the BSR), at All Saints, Ennismore Gardens, Tuesday 23 August 1904
  • Mary Hamilton (St Andrews; BSA 1905/06, 1906/07) married Guy Dickins (1881-1915; New College; BSA 1904/05, 1905/06, 1906/07, 1907/08, 1908/09, 1912/13)
  • Margaret Masson Hardie (1885-1948; Aberdeen; Newnham College; BSA 1911/12) married Frederick William Hasluck (1878-1920; King's College; BSA 1901-06; Assistant Director and Librarian 1906-15), at Pluscarden, NB, 26 September 1912
  • Mary N.L. Taylor (Newnham College; BSA 1913/14) married Harold Chalton Bradshaw (BSR, Rome Scholar in Fine Arts, 1913), at Kings Norton, 1918
The monastery of Voulkano, Mount Ithome © David Gill

Wednesday, 13 February 2008

Ernest Gardner and the study of sculpture

Ernest Gardner was the first Cambridge student at the BSA (1886/87). One of the tasks for his first year was a survey of Greek sculpture including a description of Cavvadias' installation in the Athenian Central Museum (later known as The National Archaeological Museum). Gardner mentioned works from Tegea, Delos, and Epidauros now on display in Athens, and then reviewed the displays in the Acropolis Museum, noting the newly discovered archaic statues, and the museum at Olympia. The archaic sculptures from the Athenian akropolis were the subject of a longer, separate study.

Gardner researched the technique of ancient Greek sculpture through the study of unfinished pieces. These included an kouros from Naxos (Athens NM 14; cat. no. 67), a late classical piece from Rheneia, and other unfinished pieces in the Archaeological Museum.

A further study published from Gardner's time as director was a head from his excavations at Paphos on Cyprus, and the stela of Kephisodotos, possibly from Lerna, in the museum at Argos.

After his move to University College London, Gardner prepared a Handbook of Greek Sculpture.

Gardner, E. A. 1887. "Recently discovered archaic statues." Journal of Hellenic Studies 8: 159-93. [JSTOR]
—. 1887. "Sculpture and epigraphy, 1886-1887." Journal of Hellenic Studies 8: 278-85. [JSTOR]
—. 1890. "The processes of Greek sculpture as shown by some unfinished statues at Athens." Journal of Hellenic Studies 11: 129-42. [JSTOR]
—. 1890. "Two fourth century children's heads." Journal of Hellenic Studies 11: 100-08. [JSTOR]
—. 1896. A handbook of Greek sculpture. Handbooks of archaeology and antiquities, vol. 1. London: Macmillan and Co. [WorldCat]
—. 1897. A handbook of Greek sculpture. Handbooks of archaeology and antiquities, vol. 2. London: Macmillan and Co. [WorldCat]

Unfinished kouros from Naxos. © David Gill.

'Enough to satisfy the most ardent enthusiast for Greek ceramography'

As students arrived at the BSA they were faced with quantities of unpublished pots and fragments from excavations, chance finds and old collections. As George C. Richards expressed it in relation to his study of fragments from the Athenian akropolis, there is ‘enough to satisfy the most ardent enthusiast for Greek ceramography’.

Richards had studied under Percy Gardner at Oxford, and went to Athens as Craven University Fellow (1889/90). He was invited to work on the fragments from the Akropolis Museum by Kavvadias, the Ephor of Antiquities; Jane Harrison had earlier worked on part of the same collection. The drawings were prepared by Gilliéron.

Richards was followed to Athens by Henry Stuart-Jones (best known for his work on the Greek Lexicon), also from Balliol, also influenced by Percy Gardner, and also holding a Craven University Fellowship. One of the pieces he studied was a red-figured cup in the National Museum found at Tanagra which carried the inscription Phintias epoiesen and this was discussed in a paper read to a meeting of the BSA in March 1891. However, as this cup was due to be published by P. Hartwig, Stuart-Jones changed the focus of his final version.

Eugénie Sellers published three white-ground lekythoi excavated at Eretria in 1888. Ernest Gardner, the director of the BSA, bought a further white-ground lekythos, said to be from Eretria, for the BSA’s collection in 1893. This type of pottery was to form the subject of research by the Cambridge-educated Robert Carr Bosanquet. He went to Athens in the spring of 1895 to work on Attic white ground lekythoi. In November of the same year he was in Dresden working on ‘the Athenian white-ground vases of he fifth century’, and the following month in Mannheim discussing his project with Adolph Furtwängler.
After the lecture I caught him in the passage—a German lecturer enters at a run, begins at once, and utters his last words as he bangs the door at the end—and explained that I was working at Lekythi and wanted to photograph some of his vases. He answered me … with a test question—I suppose they want to see whether one is only an amateur or serious. ‘Lekythi’ he said, ‘you have some interesting lekythi in the British Museum—the “Orestes” and the “Patroclus, Farewell” for instance.’ Now those are just the two about whose genuineness—at least as far as their inscriptions go—I have always had doubts. And F. is one of the most unerring—and, I must say, positive authorities on the question of forgeries, and I knew he had been in London lately—I saw him in the Museum—and must know the truth. So I plunged, sink or swim, and said I believed the inscriptions to be false. His whole face changed. All the fire in his eyes flashed up and he said—‘Ja! Ich halte die Beide für falsch’—then quiet and dry again—‘Sie können ruhig studieren und photographieren.’ So I was saved.
This research, that included a series of lekythoi from Eretria in the National Museum, was published in 1896. He published a further study based on a white-ground lekythos discovered at Eretria in 1889.

John H. Hopkinson, another student of Percy Gardner, went to Athens as Craven University Fellow in 1899/1900 to work on ‘the history of vase-painting’. He worked with John Baker-Penoyre, Keble College, on a study of the figure-decorated pottery of Melos. This had been prompted by the discovery of ‘Melian’ pottery in the Rheneia deposits in 1898. (Cecil Harcourt-Smith had also purchased a piece for the BSA’s collection.) This interest in pottery from the islands was continued by John L. Stokes, Pembroke College, Cambridge, who worked on Rhodian relief pithoi in 1903/04.

Economic issues were addressed by Gisela M.A. Richter in her study of the distribution of Attic pottery. She later worked on Protoattic pottery based on a new acquisition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. A further student to work on figure-decorated pottery was John P. Droop, Trinity College, Cambridge. He excavated in Laconia and became interested in the archaic Laconian ('Cyrenaic') pottery. The focus of his study were two Laconian cups: one said to have been found at Corinth and subsequently acquired by the Fitzwilliam Museum, and a second in the National Museum, Athens, which had been acquired on the Athenian market. Following further ‘stratified’ excavations at Sparta by the BSA Droop developed a chronological structure for this type of Laconian pottery. He further revised this scheme after the First World War.

There were two other Cambridge students working on figure-decorated pottery. Eustace M.W. Tillyard, who was admitted in 1911/12, was subsequently awarded a prize fellowship at Jesus College to work on the catalogue of the Hope Collection of Greek pottery. Evelyn Radford, Newnham College, Cambridge, was admitted to the BSA in 1913/14 and published a study on Euphronios.

Bosanquet, R. C. 1896. "On a group of early Attic lekythoi." Journal of Hellenic Studies 16: 164-77. [JSTOR]
—. 1899. "Some early funeral lekythoi." Journal of Hellenic Studies 19: 169-84. [JSTOR]
Droop, J. P. 1908. "Two Cyrenaic kylikes." Journal of Hellenic Studies 28: 175-79. [JSTOR]
—. 1910. "The dates of the vases called 'Cyrenaic'." Journal of Hellenic Studies 30: 1-34. [JSTOR]
Gardner, E. A. 1894. "A lecythus from Eretria with the death of Priam." Journal of Hellenic Studies 14: 170-85. [JSTOR]
Hopkinson, J. H., and J. Baker-Penoyre. 1902. "New evidence on the Melian amphorae." Journal of Hellenic Studies 22: 46-75. [JSTOR]
Radford, E. 1915. "Euphronios and His Colleagues." Journal of Hellenic Studies 35: 107-39. [JSTOR]
Richards, G. C. 1892/3. "Selected vase-fragments from the Acropolis of Athens, Part I." Journal of Hellenic Studies 13: 281-92. [JSTOR]
—. 1894a. "Selected vase-fragments from the Acropolis of Athens, Part II." Journal of Hellenic Studies 14: 186-97. [JSTOR]
—. 1894b. "Selected vase-fragments from the Acropolis of Athens, Part III." Journal of Hellenic Studies 14: 381-87. [JSTOR]
Richter, G. M. A. 1904/5. "The distribution of Attic vases." Annual of the British School at Athens 11: 224-42.
—. 1912. "A new early Attic vase." Journal of Hellenic Studies 32: 370-84. [JSTOR]
Sellers, E. 1892/3. "Three Attic lekythoi from Etretria." Journal of Hellenic Studies 13: 1-12. [JSTOR]
Stokes, J. L. 1905/06. "Stamped pithos-fragments from Cameiros." Annual of the British School at Athens 12: 71-79.
Stuart-Jones, H. 1891. "Two vases by Phintias." Journal of Hellenic Studies 12: 366-80. [JSTOR]
Tillyard, E. M. W. 1923. The Hope vases: a catalogue and a discussion of the Hope collection of Greek vases with an introduction on the history of the collection and on late Attic and south Italian vases. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [WorldCat]

Tuesday, 12 February 2008

Damophon of Messene

Several BSA students worked on Greek sculpture as their project. One of the key projects was undertaken by Guy Dickins who was invited to publish the sculptures from the sanctuary at Lykosoura in Arcadia. The site had been excavated by the Greek Archaeological Service under P. Kavvadias and the statues were found in the summer of 1889. The remains were quickly reported (by Charles Waldstein [see AJA 1890, pp. 209-10]) as the cult statues described by Pausanias (8.37.1-6) in the temple of Despoina. These colossal statues, created by Damophon of Messene, represented Despoina and Demeter, seated on a throne, with Artemis and Anytos alongside.

Waldstein wrote:
Of these statues, nearly all the fragments apparently have been recovered. There are over a hundred fragments, most of which have already been brought here, though not unpacked and not visible to the public, while some of the torsos were so large that they could not be transported on the roads that exist there. Special arrangements will be made for transporting them soon.
What Waldstein stressed was that this was the discovery of an original cult statue in situ.

Interest in Damophon was stirred by an article (1904) by Augustus M. Daniel, an associate student of the BSA, who restated a case for dating his work to the fourth century. Waldstein responded in a short note restating the case for a date in the early fourth century BCE. The case for a second century BCE date was presented by Ida Carleton Thallon (1906), who had been a student at ASCSA in 1899-901.

Dickins, a student of Percy Gardner, was admitted to the BSA in 1904/05 and started to work on Damophon (alongside his contribution to excavations in Laconia). During his second year at the BSA the Greek Government invited Dickins to ‘help in the re-erection of the colossal group at Lycosura’. At the annual meeting of the Hellenic Society in June 1908 it was reported that Dickins had reconstructed ‘out of unnumbered fragments, of the great group by Damophon of Messene … giving us for the first time satisfactory evidence in regard to monumental sculpture in Greece in the second century B.C.’ He continued this work on Damophon in the study of the sculptures in collections at Rome.

Daniel, A. M. 1904. "Damophon." Journal of Hellenic Studies 24: 41-57. [JSTOR]
Dickins, G. 1904/05. "A head in connexion with Damophon." Annual of the British School at Athens 11: 173-80.
—. 1905/06. "Damophon of Messene." Annual of the British School at Athens 12: 109-36.
—. 1906/07. "Damophon of Messene. II." Annual of the British School at Athens 13: 357-404.
—. 1910/11. "Damophon of Messene. III." Annual of the British School at Athens 17: 80-87.
Thallon, I. C. 1906. "The date of Damophon of Messene." American Journal of Archaeology 10: 302-29. [JSTOR]
Waldstein, C. 1904. "Damophon." Journal of Hellenic Studies 24: 330-31. [JSTOR]

"How different the bare limbs of the stalwart British undergraduates!"

One of the themes for research at Athens was ancient Greek drama. Ernest Gardner excavated the theatre at Megalopolis in the early 1890s. The combination of the continuing interest in Greek theatre and the appearance of new sculptural finds available for study - such as the painted korai from the Athenian akropolis - probably lay behind Ethel B. Abrahams’ research into Greek dress during the 1905-6 session (published as Greek Dress [1908]).

As part of the first International Archaeological Congress at Athens in April 1905 the Antigone was performed in the stadion (as it had been for the 1896 Olympics) and it was observed in The Times that the actors ‘were incomparably superior to most of those who have interpreted the Greek drama at Oxford and Cambridge’. The choice of venue was criticised:
The enormous Stadion, on the restoration of which immense sums have been spent and much magnificent material wasted, was never a beautiful structure and can hardly be adapted to any useful purpose in modern times, least of all to a dramatic representation.
The contrast was made with the Oxford and Cambridge plays ‘in which every detail was scientifically worked out in accordance with the ascertained usage of the Greek stage’. The report noted
the incorrectness of the costumes, the inartistic arrangement of the drapery, the negligent grouping of actors and chorus, and the inadequate decoration of the architectural background. There was, in fact, a total absence of the picturesque and the sculpturesque, although Athens abounds in ancient models and in archaeologists whose advice might have been sought to ensure accuracy in drapery and architectural detail. Thus Ismene wore a chiton like a modern petticoat, and the armed attendants, who resembled Roman legionaries rather than Greek hoplites, wore, like the other actors, opéra comique “tights”—how different the bare limbs of the stalwart British undergraduates!—while no attempt was made at polychrome decoration of the architectural scena.

Monday, 11 February 2008

Arnold Wycombe Gomme

A short biography of A.W. Gomme (1886-1959), Trinity College, Cambridge, is available from the University of Glasgow archives.

Gomme's parents appear in ODNB:

'Trafficking' antiquities from Melos

The issue of looting and the destruction of archaeological sites is not a new one. Cecil Harcourt-Smith, at the Annual Meeting of Subscribers in July 1897 commented about the need for excavation on Melos:
The antiquities of the islands are in many instances still comparatively unexplored, and are subject to the caprice, or even the trafficking, of the ignorant peasantry, and it is therefore highly desirable that, before it is too late, everything that can be done should be done to place on record their valuable but steadily disappearing remains of art and history.

BSA Students and the Board of Education

Several former BSA students joined the Board of Education.
  • Joseph Grafton Milne (1867-1951). Manchester Grammar School. Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Assistant Master (6th Form) at Mill Hill School (1891-93); Junior and Senior Examiner, and Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education (1893-1926); Reader in Numismatics, Oxford University (1930-38); Deputy Keeper of Coins, Ashmolean Museum (1931-51); Librarian, Corpus Christi College (1933-46).
  • William Loring (1865-1915). Eton. King's College, Cambridge. Fellow (1891). Examiner for the Board of Education (1894-1903); Called to the Bar, Inner Temple (1898); private secretary of Sir John Eldon Gorst MP (1835-1916), vice-president of the committee of council on education; Served in the Boer War (1899-1902) and wounded at Moedwill; personal secretary to Sir William Reynell Anson MP (1843-1914), parliamentary secretary to the Board of Education with responsibility for the 1902 Education Act; Director of Education under the West Riding C.C. (1903-5); Warden of Goldsmith's College, New Cross (1906). Hon. Secretary of British Schools in Athens and Rome.
  • Robert John Grote Mayor (1869-1947). Eton. King's College, Cambridge. Fellow (1894). Education Department (1896); Call to the Bar, Lincoln's Inn (1899); Assistant Secretary, Board of Education (1907-19); Principal Assistant Secretary (1919-26); Chairman of Committee on co-operation between Universities and Training Colleges (1926-8); and of Central Advisory Committee for certification of Teachers (1930-5).
  • Adolph Paul Oppé (1878-1957). Charterhouse. New College, Oxford. Lecturer in Greek, St Andrews University (1902); Lecturer in Ancient History, Edinburgh University (1904); Examiner in the Board of Education (1905); seconded to Victoria and Albert Museum (1906-07, 1910-13); seconded to Ministry of Munitions (1915-17); Select Committee on National Expenditure (1917-18); retired from Board of Education (1938).

BSA and Wales

There are surprisingly no students admitted to the BSA from universities in Wales in the period up to the First World War. Yet there was a growing interest in classical archaeology in the constituent colleges. George Chatterton Richards (1867-1951) was a BSA student (1889-1891), and worked with Ernest Gardner at Megalopolis. Richards was appointed professor of Greek at the University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire (1891-98). During this period he was not only ordained, but also served as Assistant Director of the British School under David Hogarth (1897).

Richards was succeeded by Ronald Montagu Burrows (1867-1920) who held the post until 1908 when he moved to Manchester. Cardiff had a succession of Greek archaeologists including Percy Neville Ure (1879-1950) who was lecturer in Greek from 1903 until moving to Leeds. Though neither Burrows nor Ure were officially admitted as students, they excavated at Rhitsona in Boeotia (though it was not an official BSA dig). It was a Cardiff student, G.E. Holding, who may hold the honour of being the first woman to work on a British field-project in Greece, Rhitsona.

Henry J.W. Tillyard held the chair of Greek at University College, Cardiff (1926-46). He had previously held the chair of Latin, University College, Johannesburg (1919-21), and the chair of Russian at Birmingham (1921-26).

The only other university in Wales that employed former BSA students as lecturers was Bangor. It had become part of the University of Wales in 1893; previously it had been the University College of North Wales awarding London degrees (1884-93). William John Woodhouse (1866-1937), who had been working in Aitolia, joined the department as assistant lecturer in 1896; he left in 1899 to become lecturer in Ancient History and Political Philosophy at St Andrews. Edward S. Forster (1879-1950), who had worked at Praesos on Crete and as part of the survey of Laconia, joined the department as assistant lecturer (1904-05). He left for to be lecturer (and later professor) of Greek at Sheffield.

(Sir) Henry Stuart-Jones (1867-1939) served as Principal for the University College of Wales at Aberystwyth (1927-34) but resigned on the grounds of ill health.

BSA Students in Australia and New Zealand

Former BSA students had a major impact on the teaching of classics in England outside Oxford and Cambridge (e.g. Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester, London). Three former students held chairs in Australia and New Zealand.

  • H. Arnold Tubbs (born c. 1865; Pembroke College, Oxford) worked with this Cyprus Exploration Fund and had to leave during the final season of excavations in Cyprus in 1890 to take up the position of professor of Classics at University College, Auckland, New Zealand.
  • William John Woodhouse (1866-1937; The Queen's College, Oxford) had worked on the Megalopolis excavations and then conducted a survey in Aetolia. He was assistant lecturer in Bangor and then lecturer in St Andrews. In 1901 he was appointed professor Greek at the University of Sydney. He was also the honorary curator of the Nicholson Museum of Antiquities (1903-37).
  • Cecil A. Scutt (1889-1961; Clare College, Cambridge) had been admitted to the BSA just before the outbreak of the First World War. He was an assistant master at Repton for two terms (1915-16), and joined Military Intelligence in Macedonia; he was invalided out of the army in 1918. In 1919 he was appointed professor of Classical Philology, University of Melbourne (1920-55).

Friday, 8 February 2008

Oxford and Craven University Fellowships

Craven Fellowships
The Fellowships shall be open to all who shall have passed the examinations required for the degree of Bachelor of Arts and who shall not have exceeded the 28th term from their matriculation. They shall be of the annual value of £200, and shall be tenable for two years. One Fellow shall be elected annually in Michaelmas Term by a committee of five persons appointed for the purpose by the Board of the Faculty of Arts (Literæ Humaniores). The committee shall have power to elect either without examination or after such examination in Greek and Latin literature, history and antiquities, or in some part of these subjects, as they shall think fit. … He shall be required as a condition of his becoming entitled to the emoluments of his Fellowship to spend at least eight months of each of the two years of his tenure thereof in residence abroad for the purpose of study at some place or places approved by the selecting committee.

  • 1886/87. David George Hogarth. Magdalen College. Lit. Hum. 1st (1885).
  • 1888/89. H. Arnold Tubbs. Pembroke College. BA (1889). BSA admitted 1888/89.
  • 1889/90. George Chatterton Richards. Balliol College. Lit. Hum. 1st (1889).
  • 1890/91. Henry Stuart-Jones. Balliol College; Fellow of Trinity College. Lit. Hum. 1st (1890).
  • 1891/92. William John Woodhouse. Queen's College. Lit. Hum. 1st (1889). Admitted BSA 1889/90 (Oxford Studentship; Sir Charles Newton Studentship).
  • 1892/93. John Linton Myres. New College; Fellow of Magdalen College. Lit. Hum. 1st (1892).
  • 1895/96. Campbell Cowan Edgar. Oriel College. Lit. Hum. 1st (1895).
  • 1896/97. John George Clark Anderson. Christ Church. Lit. Hum. 1st (1896).
  • 1898/99, 1899/1900. Francis Bertram Welch. Magdalen College. Lit. Hum. 1st (1898).
  • 1899/1900. John Henry Hopkinson. University College. Lit. Hum. 2nd (1899).
  • 1901/02. Marcus Niebuhr Tod. St John's College. Lit. Hum. 1st (1901).
  • 1904/05. Guy Dickins. New College. Lit. Hum. 1st (1904).
  • 1906/07. Thomas Eric Peet. The Queen's College. Lit. Hum. 2nd (1905).
  • 1907/08. William Moir Calder. Christ Church. Lit. Hum. 1st (1907).
  • 1908/09. Maurice Scott Thompson. Corpus Christi College. Lit. Hum. 2nd (1907).
  • 1910/11 (awarded 1909). William Reginald Halliday. New College. Lit. Hum. 1st (1909).
  • 1913/14. Roger Meyrick Heath. Oriel College. Lit. Hum. 1st (1912).
Craven Studentship
The Oxford studentships were nominated by the Committee of the Craven Fund. They were initially worth £50, but were then offered in alternate years worth £100. (See also Cambridge Studentships.)
  • 1889/90. William John Woodhouse . The Queen's College.
  • 1890/91. Joseph Grafton Milne. Corpus Christi.
  • 1891/92. Charles Cuthbert Inge. Magdalen College.
  • 1892/93. J. Milne Cheetham. Christ Church.
  • 1896/97. John Winter Crowfoot. Brasenose.
  • 1897/98. Alfred John Spilsbury. The Queen's College.
  • 1898/99. John Knight Fotheringham. Merton; Senior Demy at Magdalen College (1898-1902).
  • 1900/01. Kingdon Tregosse Frost. Brasenose.
  • 1901/02. Marcus Niebuhr Tod. St John's. Senior Student.
  • 1902/03. Edward Seymour Forster. Oriel.
  • 1904/05. Max Otto Bismark Caspari (Max Cary). Corpus Christi.
  • 1906/07. Guy Dickins. New College.
  • 1910/11. Edward Stanley Gotch Robinson. Christ Church.
  • 1912/13. Stanley Casson. St John's.
  • 1914/15. Cyril Bertram Moss-Blundell. New College. Student elect.

This list will be updated.

Cambridge and other studentships

There were several sources of funding for Cambridge students including the Prendergast Greek Studentship and the Craven Studentship (both worth £200), and the Cambridge Studentships (initially worth £50, and then £100 but awarded in alternate years).

The Worts Fund
  • Edward Frederic Benson (1867-1940). King's. BSA 1891/92 (Worts Fund).
  • The Fund awarded the BSA £100 per annum, initially for three years, 'with a view to encouraging archaeological research in Hellenic lands' (October 1895).
  • Alan J.B. Wace and John P. Droop were awarded £30 'towards defraying the expense of an excavation to be undertaken in Southern Thessaly' (December 1907).
Other Funds
  • 1887/88: Montague Rhodes James (1862-1936). King's. Grant of £100 from Cambridge University for work on Cyprus.
  • 1901/02: Elizabeth Hilda Lockhart Lorimer (1873-1954). Girton: Pfeiffer Studentship, £40 (1901/02), 'to proceed to Athens to study Athenian vase paintings of the latter half of the fifth century B.C.'.
  • 1903/04: Margery Katharine Welsh (1880-1960). Newnham: Marion Kennedy Studentship from Newnham College 1903/04.
  • 1903/04: John Laurence Stokes (1881-1948). Pembroke: Prior Scholarship from Pembroke College 1903/04.

Cambridge Studentships

Two studentships, each worth £50, were offered to students from Oxford and Cambridge from 1886. The studentships were then combined to make a single studentship, worth £100, to be offered to Cambridge and Oxford students in alternate years.

Other sources of funding for Cambridge students included the Prendergast Greek Studentship and the Craven Studentship (both worth £200).

The Cambridge Studentships included:
  • 1886/87 (Cambridge and Craven University Student): Ernest Arthur Gardner (1862-1939). Gonville & Caius. First Cambridge student.
  • 1889/90: William Loring (1865-1915). King's. Part 2, 1st (1889).
  • 1890/91: Edward Ernest Sikes (1867-1940). St John's. Part 2, archaeology, 1st (1890).
  • 1891/92: Arthur George Bather (1868-1928). King's. Part 2, 1st (1891). First admitted 1889/90.
  • 1892/93: Edward Frederic Benson (1867-1940). King's. Part 2, 1st (1891). First admitted 1891/92 (Worts Fund).
  • 1893/94: Arthur George Bather (1868-1928). King's. Previous holder of Cambridge Studentship (1891/92); Prendergast Greek Studentship (1892/93).
  • 1898/99: Clement Gutch (1875-1908). King's. Part 2, Greek and Roman Archaeology, 1st (1898).
  • 1899/1900: Solomon Charles Kaines-Smith (1876-1958). Magdalene. Part 2, 1st (1898).
  • 1901/02: Frederick William Hasluck (1878-1920). King's. Part 2, 1st (1901).
  • 1905/06: Henry Julius Wetenhall Tillyard (1881-1968). Gonville & Caius. Part 2, 1st (1904).
  • 1909/10: Sidney Wilson Grose (1886-1980). Christ's. Part 2, classical archaeology, distinction (1909).
  • 1911/12: Margaret Masson Hardie (1885-1948). Newnham College. 1st.
  • 1913/14: Max Ludwig Wolfram Laistner (1890-1959). Jesus College. Part 2, 1st (1912). BSA Craven Studentship 1912/13.

Cambridge and Craven Students

The Craven Trust supported BSA students in three ways:
  1. The Craven University Studentship.
  2. The Craven Studentship
  3. The Craven Fund
Craven University Student
  • 1886/87 (Cambridge and Craven University Student): Ernest Arthur Gardner (1862-1939). Gonville & Caius. First Cambridge student.
  • 1894/95 (Craven University Student): Robert Carr Bosanquet (1871-1935). Trinity. Part 2, 1st (1894). Admitted 1892/93.
Craven Student
The studentship was created in 1885,
for the purpose of facilitating advanced study or research away form Cambridge in the languages, literature, history, archaeology, or art of ancient Greece or Rome, or the comparative philology of the Indo-European languages.
The regulations stated:
The studentship shall be of the annual value of £200 and shall be tenable for one year, one student being elected annually at such time as the University may from time to time determine, but a Craven student shall not be eligible for re-election on more than two occasions.
  • 1887-90: Ernest Arthur Gardner (1862-1939). Gonville & Caius. Director: 1887-1895. Previously Craven University Student (1886/87).
  • 1891/92, 1892/93: William Loring (1865-1915). King's. Part 2, 1st (1889). Admitted 1889/90 (Cambridge Studentship).
  • 1893/94: Edward Frederic Benson (1867-1940). King's. Part 2, 1st (1891). Admitted 1891/92; 1892/93 (Cambridge Studentship).
  • 1895/96, 1896/97: Robert Carr Bosanquet (1871-1935). Trinity. Part 2, 1st (1894). Admitted 1892/93. Previously Craven University Student (1894/95).
  • 1898/99, 1899/1900: John Cuthbert Lawson (1874-1935). Pembroke. Part 2, 1st (1897).
  • 1901/02: John Hubert Marshall (1876-1958). King's. Part 2, 1st (1900). Admitted 1898/99; 1900/01 (Prendergast Greek Studentship).
  • 1903/04: Alan John Bayard Wace (1879-1957). Pembroke. Part 2, 1st (1902). Admitted 1902/03 (Prendergast Greek Studentship).
Craven Fund
The regulations stated,
The annual sum of £40 shall be paid to the managers for the time being of a fund to be called the Craven Fund, by whom grants may be made from time to time for the furtherance of research in the languages, literature, history, archaeology, and art of ancient Greece and Rome, and the comparative philology of the Indo-European languages.
  • 1887/88: Montague Rhodes James (1862-1936). King's. Part 2, 1st (1885). £40, 'for the purpose of archaeological work on Cyprus'.
  • 1891/92: Francis Brayne Baker (1868-not known). Christ's. £40, ‘for archaeological study in connexion with the British School at Athens’ (1891).'
  • 1896/97 (Craven Fund): Frank Russell Earp (1871-1955). King's. Part 2, 1st (1894). £40.
  • 1898/99: Clement Gutch (1875-1908). King's. Part 2, Greek and Roman Archaeology, 1st (1898). £40, ‘to carry out the exploration of certain necropoleis in the Greek Cyclades’.
  • 1901/02: Robert Carr Bosanquet (1871-1935). Trinity. As Director, £90, ‘to be used for the expenses in excavations at Cyzicus’.
  • 1905/06: Henry Julius Wetenhall Tillyard (1881-1968). Gonville & Caius. Part 2, 1st (1904).
  • 1903/04: Richard Macgillivray Dawkins (1871-1955). Emmanuel. Part 2, 1st (1902). £50.
  • 1912/13: Max Ludwig Wolfram Laistner (1890-1959). Jesus College. Part 2, 1st (1912). £40.

Thursday, 7 February 2008

BSA and King's College

  • Montague Rhodes James (1862-1936). Eton. Scholar (1882); Bell Scholar (1883); Part 1, 1st (1884); Craven Scholar (1884); Part 2, 1st (1885). BSA 1887/88.
  • William Loring (1865-1915). Eton. Bell Scholar (1886); Part 1, 1st (1887); Battie Scholar (1888); Part 2, 1st (1889). BSA 1889/90 (Cambridge Studentship), 1890/91 (Craven University Student), 1891/92, 1892/93; Secretary 1897-1903.
  • Edward Frederic Benson (1867-1940). Marlborough. Exhibitioner (1888); Part 1, 1st (1890); Scholar (1890); Part 2, 1st (1891). BSA 1891/92 (Worts Fund), 1892/93 (Cambridge Studentship), 1893/94 (Craven Student), 1894/95 (Prendergast Greek Student).
  • Arthur George Bather (1868-1928). Rossall. Scholar; Part 1, 1st (1889); Part 2, 1st (1891). BSA 1889/90, 1891/92 (Cambridge Studentship), 1892/93 (Prendergast Greek Studentship), 1893/94 (Cambridge Studentship).
  • Robert John Grote Mayor (1869-1947). Eton. Bell Scholar (1889); Craven Scholar (1891); Part 2, 1st (1892). BSA 1892/93.
  • Vincent Wodehouse Yorke (1869-1957). Eton. Part 1, 1st (1891); Scholar (1891); Part 2, 1st (1892). BSA 1892/93, 1893/94; Hon. Treasurer 1906-55.
  • Frank Russell Earp (1871-1955). Uppingham. Exhibitioner (1892); Part 1, 1st (1893); Scholar (1893); Part 2, 1st (1894). BSA 1896/97.
  • Clement Gutch (1875-1908). Harrow. Part 1, 1st (1897); Scholar (1897); Part 2, Greek and Roman Archaeology, 1st (1898). BSA 1898/99 (Cambridge Studentship).
  • John Hubert Marshall (1876-1958). Dulwich. Scholar; Part 1, 1st (1898); Scholar (1898); Part 2, 1st (1900). BSA 1898/99, 1900/01 (Prendergast Greek Studentship), 1901/02 (Craven Student).
  • Frederick William Hasluck (1878-1920). Leys. Part 1, 1st (1899); Scholar (1899); Part 2, 1st (1901). BSA 1901/02 (Cambridge Studentship), 1902/03, 1904/05, 1905/06; Assistant Director and Librarian 1906-15.
  • Montague Rhodes James (1862-1936). Fellow (1887-1905); Dean and Tutor; Provost (1905-18); Vice-Chancellor (1913-14).
  • William Loring (1865-1915). Fellow (1891-97).
  • Arthur George Bather (1868-1928). Fellow (1894); Assistant Master at Winchester (1894-1928).
  • Robert John Grote Mayor (1869-1947). Fellow (1894).
  • Vincent Wodehouse Yorke (1869-1957). Fellow (1895).
  • Frank Russell Earp (1871-1955). Fellow (1897).
  • Frederick William Hasluck (1878-1920). Fellow (1904).
  • Sir John Hubert Marshall (1876-1958). Hon. Fellow (1927).

BSA and Museum Catalogues

John L. Myres held to prepare a Catalogue of the Cyprus Museum (1899) that presented some of the work of the Cyprus Exploration Fund directed by Ernest Gardner. He subsequently researched the catalogue of the Cesnola Collection in New York.

As part of Bosanquet's work in Laconia, M.N. Tod and A.J.B. Wace prepared A Catalogue of the Sparta Museum (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906). This led to invitation for the BSA to be involved with the production of a catalogue for the Acropolis Museum. One of the key researchers was Guy Dickins (who was killed during the First World War): Stanley Casson had to prepare the second volume for publication in 1921. Dorothy Lamb worked on the terracottas.

Ohnefalsch-Richter, M. H., and J. L. Myres. 1899. A Catalogue of the Cyprus Museum: with a Chronicle of Excavations Undertaken since the British Occupation, and Introductory Notes on Cypriote Archaeology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Tod, M. N., and A. J. B. Wace. 1906. A Catalogue of the Sparta Museum. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Myres, J. L. 1914. Handbook of the Cesnola Collection of Antiquities from Cyprus. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Dickins, G. 1912. Catalogue of the Acropolis Museum I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Casson, S. (ed.) 1921. Catalogue of the Acropolis Museum II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

BSA Students and Museums

BSA Students had learned skills of working on museum collections in Greece, and the BSA was responsible for the publications of catalogues of the Sparta and the Akropolis Museums. Cecil Harcourt-Smith had been seconded from the British Museum to serve as Director of the BSA. Surprisingly only two of the students seem to have worked at the British Museum, and neither in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities. John P. Droop was an assistant to Aurel Stein (1909-11), whereas E.S.G. Robinson joined the Department of Coins and Medals as an assistant in 1912 just after his time in Athens. The department was then under the Keepership of George Hill who had been working on the catalogue of Greek coins. Robinson in effect took over from the work of Warwick Wroth who had died in 1911. Robinson continued to work in the Department, apart from an interlude of war service, until his retirement in 1952; he was promoted to Keeper in 1949.

Several students found work in the University museums at Oxford and Cambridge. M. Rhodes James was the assistant director of the Fitzwilliam Museum (1886-93) while he was admitted to work with Ernest Gardner on the Cyprus Exploration Fund. The Fitzwilliam helped to sponsor the excavations and as a result acquired a number of finds including sculpture. He served under John H. Middleton (1889-92), and succeeded him as Director (1893-1908). Grose joined the museum in 1914 working on a catalogue of the Greek collection.

In Oxford David G. Hogarth succeed Arthur Evans as Keeper at the Ashmolean Museum in November 1908. During this period he developed the collections of Cretan and Hittite antiquities. During the First World War he served in Cairo, returning to Oxford in June 1919. After the war he continued to work on the Hittites, but failing health restricted his activities and he died in 1927. J.G. Milne was appointed Deputy Keeper of Coins, Ashmolean Museum (1931-51), a post formerly held (until 1928) by Humfry Payne. Milne was also a reader in numismatics (1930-38) and librarian of Corpus Christi College (1933-46).

Other former students of the BSA were involved with national collections. Adolph Paul Oppé worked at the Victoria and Albert Museum for two periods (1906-07, 1910-13), and Alan J.B. Wace became Deputy Keeper (1924-34) after his time as Director at the School came to an end. Wace’s expertise with textiles from the Aegean and Anatolia was used to great effect. Solomon C. Kaines Smith was appointed the first official lecturer at the National Gallery in London (1914-16): the position was disrupted by the First World War. After a short career lecturing in Cambridge, he became director of the City Art Gallery in Leeds (1924-27), followed by keeper of the City Museum and Art Gallery, Birmingham (1927-41).

Two students held museum positions outside British. C.C. Edgar, a former inspector of antiquities in Egypt, was appointed assistant keeper at the Cairo Museum in 1920, and Keeper in 1923. In North America C.H. Hawes was appointed Associate Director of the Museum in Fine Arts in Boston.

BSA Managing Committee (1886-1918)

The original committee consisted of the following 'five members ... appointed by the general body of subscribers':
There were also:
Subsequently the Managing Committee consisted of the following elements:

Appointed by the University of Oxford:
  • David Binning Monro (1836-1905), Provost of Oriel College. (1895/96, 1896/97, 1897/98, 1898/99, 1900/01, 1901/02, 1903/04, 1904/05)
  • Professor Percy Gardner (1846-1937). (1905/06, 1909/10, 1910/11, 1911/12, 1912/13, 1913/14, 1914/15, 1916/17, 1917/18)
Appointed by the University of Cambridge (from 1896):
  • Professor (Sir) William Ridgeway (1858-1926). (1896/97, 1897/98, 1898/99, 1900/01, 1901/02, 1903/04).
  • Professor (Sir) John Edwin Sandys (1844-1922). (1904/05, 1905/06, 1909/10, 1910/11, 1911/12, 1912/13, 1913/14, 1914/15, 1915/16, 1916/17, 1917/18).
Appointed by the Hellenic Society:
  • (Sir) Sidney Colvin (1845-1927). (1895/96, 1896/97, 1897/98, 1898/99, 1899/1900, 1900/01, 1901/02, 1903/04, 1904/05, 1905/06).
  • Jane Ellen Harrison (1850-1928). (1909/10, 1910/11, 1911/12, 1912/13, 1913/14, 1914/15, 1915/16, 1916/17, 1917/18).
Appointed by the subscribers (former Directors):
  • Francis Cranmer Penrose (1817-1903). Director: 1886/87. (1895/96, 1896/97, 1897/98, 1898/99, 1899/1900, 1900/01, 1901/02).
  • Ernest Arthur Gardner (1862-1939). Student: 1886/87; Director: 1887-1895. (1897/98, replacing Bent; 1898/99, 1899/1900, 1900/01, 1901/02, 1903/04, 1904/05, 1905/06, 1909/10, 1910/11, 1911/12, 1912/13, 1913/14, 1914/15, 1915/16, 1916/17, 1917/18).
  • (Sir) Cecil Harcourt Smith (1859-1944). Director: 1895-97. (1897/98, 1898/99, 1899/1900, 1900/01, 1901/02, 1903/04, 1904/05, 1905/06, 1909/10, 1910/11, 1911/12, 1912/13, 1913/14, 1914/15, 1915/16, 1916/17, 1917/18).
  • David George Hogarth (1862-1927). Student: 1886/87; Director: 1897-1900. (1896/97, 1900/01, 1901/02, 1903/04, 1904/05, 1905/06, 1909/10, 1910/11, 1911/12, 1912/13, 1913/14, 1914/15, 1915/16, 1916/17, 1917/18).
  • Professor Robert Carr Bosanquet (1871-1935). Student: 1892/93, 1894-97; Assistant Director: 1899/1900; Director: 1900-06. (1909/10, 1910/11, 1911/12, 1912/13, 1913/14, 1914/15, 1915/16, 1916/17, 1917/18).
  • Richard Macgillivray Dawkins (1871-1955). Student: 1902-05; Director: 1906-14. (1914/15, 1915/16, 1916/17, 1917/18).
Appointed by the subscribers (excluding former Directors):
  • Professor (Sir) Thomas Clifford Allbutt (1836-1925), MD, FRS. (1895/96)
  • James Theodore Bent (1852-97). (1896/97)
  • (Sir) Reginald Theodore Blomfield (1856-1942). (1903/04, 1904/05, 1905/06)
  • John Percival Droop (1882-1963). Student: 1905-09, 1910/11, 1912-14. (1916/17, 1917/18)
  • Sir Francis Elliot, KCMG. (1917/18)
  • (Sir) Arthur John Evans (1851-1941). (1900/01, 1901/02, 1903/04, 1904/05, 1905/06, 1909/10, 1910/11, 1911/12, 1912/13, 1913/14, 1914/15, 1915/16, 1916/17, 1917/18)
  • Theodore Fyfe (1875-1945). Student: 1899/1900. (1909/10, 1910/11, 1911/12, 1912/13, 1913/14)
  • Percy Gardner (1846-1937). (1900/01, 1901/02, 1903/04, 1904/05)
  • Walter Sykes George (1881-1962). Student: 1906/07, 1908-10, 1912/13. (1914/15)
  • Jane Ellen Harrison (1850-1928). (1895/96, 1896/97, 1897/98, 1898/99, 1899/1900, 1900/01, 1901/02, 1903/04, 1904/05, 1905/06)
  • Francis John Haverfield (1860-1919). (1900/01, 1901/02)
  • Caroline Amy Hutton (c. 1861-1931). Student: 1896/97. (1909/10, 1910/11, 1911/12)
  • Harry Herbert Jewell (1882-1974). Student: 1909/10. (1915/16)
  • William Loring (1865-1915). Student: 1889-93. (1895/96, 1896/97, 1905/06, 1909/10)
  • George Augustin Macmillan (1855-1936). London secretary of the BSA 1886-98. (1897/98, 1898/99, 1899/1900)
  • Robert John Grote Mayor (1869-1947). Student: 1892/93. (1903/04, 1904/05, 1905/06, 1909/10, 1910/11, 1911/12)
  • Professor (Sir) John Linton Myres (1869-1954). Student: 1892-95. (1895/96, 1896/97, 1897/98, 1898/99, 1899/1900, 1900/01, 1901/02, 1903/04, 1904/05, 1905/06, 1909/10, 1910/11, 1911/12, 1912/13, 1913/14, 1914/15, 1915/16, 1916/17, 1917/18)
  • Professor Henry Francis Pelham (1846-1907). (1895/96, 1896/97, 1897/98, 1898/99, 1899/1900, 1900/01, 1901/02, 1903/04)
  • Professor James Smith Reid (1846-1926). (1900/01, 1901/02, 1903/04, 1904/05, 1905/06, 1909/10)
  • (Sir) John Edwin Sandys (1844-1922). (1895/96, 1896/97, 1897/98, 1898/99, 1899/1900)
  • Marcus Niebuhr Tod (1878-1974). Student: 1901/02; Assistant Director: 1902-04. (1909/10, 1910/11, 1911/12, 1912/13, 1913/14, 1914/15, 1915/16, 1916/17, 1917/18)
  • Alan John Bayard Wace (1879-1957). Student: 1902-11; Director: 1914-23. (1910/11, 1911/12, 1912/13, 1913/14)
  • Professor (Sir) Charles Waldstein (Walston) (1856-1927). (1895/96, 1896/97, 1897/98, 1898/99, 1899/1900, 1900/01, 1901/02, 1903/04, 1904/05, 1905/06, 1909/10, 1910/11, 1911/12, 1912/13, 1913/14, 1914/15, 1915/16, 1916/17, 1917/18)
  • Leonard Whibley (1863-1941). (1910/11, 1911/12, 1912/13, 1913/14, 1914/15, 1915/16, 1916/17, 1917/18)
  • Vincent Yorke. (1904/05)
  • (Sir) Alfred Eckhard Zimmern (1879-1957). (1912/13, 1913/14, 1914/15, 1915/16, 1916/17, 1917/18)
Ex officio joint editor of the Annual:
  • Caroline Amy Hutton (c. 1861-1931). (1912/13, 1913/14, 1914/15, 1915/16)
Rules and Regulations (1895/96):
VI. A corporate body subscribing not less than £50 a year, for a term of years, shall, during that term, have the right to nominate a member of the Managing Committee.
XIII. The Managing Committee shall consist of the following:-
(1) The Trustees of the School.
(2) The Treasurer and Secretary of the School.
(3) Nine Members elected by the Subscribers at the annual meetings. Of these, three shall retire in each year, at first by lot, afterwards by rotation. Members retiring are eligible for re-election.
(4) The members nominated by corporate bodies under Article VI.
Amendment (by 1903/04):
(3) Twelve Members elected by the Subscribers at the annual meetings. Of these, four shall retire in each year, at first by lot, afterwards by rotation. Members retiring are eligible for re-election.

This is a working page and will be updated.

Wednesday, 6 February 2008

BSA Students and London University

Ernest Gardner resigned as the BSA director to because the Yates professor of Archaeology at University College (1896). He later served as public orator for the University of London (1910-32).

Three other former BSA students were appointed to positions in London. Frank Earp (BSA 1896/97) was appointed lecturer in Classics at East London College (1905-30). He was subsequently professor of Classics and fellow of Queen Mary College (1930-36). John K. Fotheringham (BSA 1898/99) was appointed lecturer in Classical Literature at King's College in 1904, lecturer in Ancient History in 1909 and promoted to reader in 1912. Max Cary (BSA 1903/04) moved from Birmingham in 1908 to be reader in Ancient History attached to University College and Bedford College; he was subsequently professor of Ancient History (1937-46).

After the First World War several former BSA students held positions in London. Two were at King’s College. Max Laistner (BSA 1912-14), who had lectured at Birmingham and Belfast, moved from Manchester to be Reader in Ancient History (1921-25). Edwyn R. Bevan (BSA 1893/94) was lecturer in Hellenistic History and Literature (1922-33). In 1928 William R. Halliday (BSA 1910/11, 1912/13), resigned as professor of Ancient History at Liverpool, to become Principal of King’s College (1928-33); he was also Deputy Vice-Chancellor, London University (1932).

BSA Students and Manchester University

The first BSA student in Manchester was J.H. Hopkinson who moved from Birmingham in 1904 to become lecturer in classical archaeology at Victoria University (1904-14). He was also the warden of Hulme Hall, one of the halls of residence built in 1907. Hopkinson had strong links with Manchester as his father Professor (Sir) Alfred Hopkinson had been principal of Owens College (from 1898), and then a vice-chancellor of the newly formed Victoria University (1900-1913). The department was strengthened in 1906 by the appointment of Alexander C.B. Brown as assistant lecturer in classics (1906-08). He had just completed a year at the BSA.

In 1908 Ronald Montagu Burrows (1867-1920), who had excavated in Greece with Percy N. Ure at Rhitsona, was appointed Hulme Professor of Greek. He resigned in 1913 to become principal of King’s College, London, and was replaced by William M. Calder (1881-1960) who had been admitted as a student at the BSA (1907/08) and had subsequently studied in Berlin and Paris. Calder, who had studied with William Ramsay at Aberdeen before moving to Christ Church, Oxford (see 'Scotland and the BSA'), was involved with Ramsay’s epigraphic surveys in Asia Minor. He also held the position of lecturer in Christian epigraphy at Manchester. In 1930 he moved to Edinburgh as professor of Greek. T. Eric Peet also moved to Manchester in 1913 as lecturer in Egyptology (1913-23). J.H. Hopkinson resigned in 1914 and was ordained deacon in the Church of England serving a first curacy in Colne (1914).

After the First World War the department was joined by Max Laistner as assistant lecturer in Classics (July 1919-21). He had been at the BSA (1912-14) and then lectured at Birmingham (1914) and Belfast (1915) before war service in the Middlesex Regiment and the Ministry of Labour.

BSA Students and Liverpool University

The University College of Liverpool was founded in 1881, and received its university charter in 1903. John Garstang (1876-1956), who had studied under Francis J. Haverfield in Oxford and excavated in Egypt with Flinders Petrie, was appointed honorary reader in Egyptology at Liverpool in 1902. Garstang then worked towards the foundation of the Institute of Archaeology (1904). Robert C. Bosanquet, director of the BSA, was appointed professor of classical archaeology in 1906.

The Greek archaeology interests of the department were strengthened in 1907 with the appointment of John L. Myres as Gladstone professor of Greek and lecturer in Ancient Geography, though his stay was short as he returned to Oxford in 1910. He was replaced by Arnold W. Gomme who held the position of assistant lecturer in Classics (1910-11). He had a strong interest in topography, filling a gap left by Myres, but he moved to Glasgow after a year. Gomme in turn was replaced by Henry A. Ormerod, who served as assistant lecturer in Greek (1911-23). During this time he started his work on piracy in the ancient world. Arthur M. Woodward was appointed assistant lecturer in 1911 after serving as Assistant Director in Athens (1909/10). However after a year he moved to Leeds as Reader, no doubt reflecting his expertise in the field of epigraphy. A further BSA student, William R. Halliday, joined the university in 1914 as the Rathbone professor of Ancient History (1914-28).

James George Frazer (BSA 1889/90) was appointed professor of Social Anthropology in 1908.

Bosanquet left Liverpool in 1920 to make way for men returning from the First World War. He was succeeded by another BSA student, John P. Droop. who held the Charles W. Jones Professor of Classical Archaeology (1921-48). Droop had excavated with Bosanquet in Greece, and also in Egypt at Abydos. A further former BSA student was T. Eric Peet who arrived as the Brunner professor of Egyptology (1920-33). There was further change in 1923 when Ormerod left Liverpool to become professor of Classics at Leeds. He returned to Liverpool in 1928 as the Rathbone professor of Ancient History (1928-51) when Halliday left.

BSA Students and Birmingham University

Classics had been taught at Mason College, Birmingham from at least 1882 when Edward A. Sonnenschein (1851-1929) was appointed professor of Greek and Latin in 1882. Mason University College was created by Act of Parliament in 1897, and soon gained full university status. By late 1898 it was proposed that the classics staff should consist of:
Greek, one professor; Latin, one professor; Greek and Latin, one lecturer.
One of the first assistant lecturers at Mason University College was Frederick A.C. Morrison who had just completed his time as a student in Greece (1896/97). He died in July 1899, and was replaced by another BSA student, John W. Crowfoot, as classical lecturer (1899-1900). Crowfoot had been a contemporary of Morrison in Greece and had stayed for an additional year. He left in 1900 to become Assistant Master, Tewfikian School, Ministry of Education, Cairo (1901-03).

As the University became established, Sonnenschein was appointed the first Dean of the Faculty of Arts and revised the curriculum for classics. The department was joined in 1901 by John Henry Hopkinson as lecturer in Greek (1901-04). He had just completed two years in Athens, one as Craven University Fellow. His father, Professor Alfred Hopkinson, was at the time vice-chancellor of Victoria University in Manchester (and had previously been principal of Owens College). Hopkinson left in 1904 to become a lecturer in classical archaeology at Manchester, and he was replaced as lecturer in Greek in 1905 by Max O.B. Caspari (Max Cary) who had been at the BSA (1903/04) and had then taken a diploma in education at Liverpool (1905). Cary left for a Readership in Ancient History in London in 1908. A further former BSA student to join the department was Max Ludwig Wolfram Laistner as assistant lecturer in classics (1914). He left to fill the post in Belfast left vacant by the death of K.T. Frost, another former BSA student, on the Western Front.

Henry J.W. Tillyard, another BSA student, was appointed to the chair of Russian (1921-26).